Introduction: Dental caries is a major public health problem, and Streptococcus mutans is considered the main causal agent of dental caries. This study aimed to compare the effect of three re-mineralizing materials: resin infiltrant, fluoride varnish, and nano-hydroxy apatite paste on the surface hardness and adhesion of Streptococcus mutans as noninvasive treatments for initial enamel lesions.

Methods: This experimental study was conducted from December 2015 through March 2016 in Babol, Iran. Artificial enamel lesions were created on 60 enamel surfaces, which were divided into two groups: Group A and Group B (30 subjects per group). Group A was divided into three subgroups (10 samples in each subgroup), including fluoride varnish group, nano-hydroxy apatite paste group (Nano P paste), and resin infiltrant group (Icon-resin). In Group A, the surface hardness of each sample was measured in three stages: First, on an intact enamel (baseline); second, after creating artificial enamel lesions; third, after application of re-mineralizing materials. In Group B, the samples were divided into five subgroups, including intact enamel, demineralized enamel, demineralized enamel treated with fluoride varnish, Nano P paste, and Icon-resin. In Group B, standard Streptococcus mutans bacteria adhesion (PTCC 1683) was examined and reported in terms of colony forming units (CFU/ml). Then, data were analyzed using ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and post hoc tests.

Results: In Group A, after treatment with re-mineralizing materials, the Icon-resin group had the highest surface hardness among the studied groups, then the Nano P paste group and fluoride varnish group, respectively (p = 0.035). In Group B, in terms of bacterial adhesion, fluoride varnish group had zero bacterial adhesion level, and then the Nano P paste group, Icon-resin group, intact enamel group, and the de-mineralized enamel group showed bacterial adhesion increasing in order (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: According to the study among the examined materials, the resin infiltrant increased the tooth surface hardness as the intact enamel and fluoride varnish had the highest reduction level for bacterial adhesion. Nano P paste had an effect between the two materials, both in increasing surface hardness and reducing bacterial adhesion.


Keywords: Bacterial adhesion, Nano P paste, Surface hardness, Resin infiltrant, Fluoride varnish, Streptococcus mutans
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