Introduction: Because of resistance and side effects to common antifungal drugs activity, the research on herbal substances with antifungal activity is frequent. Lemon verbena (Lippia citriodora) is a member of Verbenaceae family. The aim of this study was to determine the anti-candida activities of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the lemon verbena leaves and compare them with nystatin and fluconazole.

Methods: In this 2015 study, 15 clinical isolates and standard strain of candida albicans PTCC 5027 were used, and the inhibitory effects of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts, Nystatin and Fluconazole, were evaluated using disk and well diffusion methods. Also, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. Five concentrations of aqueous and ethanolic extracts (156-2500 μg/ml), Nystatin (8-128 μg/ml) and Fluconazole (4-64 μg/ml) were used in disk and well diffusion methods, and nine concentrations of aqueous and ethanolic extracts (19-5000 μg/ml), Nystatin (0.5-128 μg/ml), and Fluconazole (0.25-64 μg/ml) were applied for MIC. Data were analyzed using Tukey's post-hoc and one-way ANOVA tests. The significant level was considered p < 0.05 in the current study.

Results: In the well and disk diffusion techniques, limited growth inhibition halos were produced around some clinical isolates at different concentrations of ethanolic extract; however, no growth inhibitory halo was observed with any concentrations of the aqueous extract. The MIC values of ethanolic extract, aqueous extract, Nystatin and Fluconazole for clinical isolated and standard strain were 833 ± 78.5and 625μg/ml; 4156 ± 67.4 and 2500 μg/ml; 10.13 ± 1.91 and 4 μg/ml; and 1.97 ± 0.25 and 1 μg/ml, respectively. 

Conclusion: The results showed that the ethanolic extract was stronger than the aqueous extract of this plant, which can be used as an alternative for drugs. It is recommended that the ethanolic extract of this plant be investigated in vivo for better evaluation of its efficacy and properties.


Keywords: Anti-Candida albicans activity, Lippia citriodora, Ethanolic and Aqeoues extracts, Nystatin, Fluconazole
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