Introduction: Developmental care provided to infants hospitalized at neonatal intensive care units (NICU) help weaken environmental stressors and reduce infant morbidity rates. Assessments are the first step to improving the quality of any type of care. Therefore, this study was conducted to design and assess the psychometric features of a scale designed for measuring quality of developmental care in the NICU in Iran.

Methods: This study was conducted from December 2014 through September 2015 in Tehran, Iran. The present mixed-methods sequential exploratory (quantitative-qualitative) study used the Delphi method to design an initial questionnaire through a review of the literature and by using the input of experts. The validity of the questionnaire was ensured by assessing then validity of its content (qualitative-quantitative), face (qualitative-quantitative), and construct (exploratory factor analysis with 500 NICU personnel from 34 hospitals in Tehran), and its reliability was ensured by assessing its internal consistency (using Cronbach's alpha) and by assessing its stability through the test-retest method. 

Results: The qualitative stage of the study resulted in a 93-item questionnaire with eight domains. After performing the content and face analyses, a factor analysis was performed on 90 items of the questionnaire, yielding a 76-item questionnaire with five domains, including "sleep, pain and stress management," "routine care," "the family," "management," and "sensory care," which explained 62.5% of the variance. The reliability of the questionnaire was confirmed with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.9 and its stability was confirmed by an Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) of 0.93.

Conclusion: The questionnaire developed for the assessment of developmental care in the NICU covered all of the dimensions of this type of care, and it is a valid and reliable tool for assessing and improving developmental care in the NICU.


Keywords: developmental care, psychometric assessment, validity, reliability, questionnaire, NICU
» HTML Fulltext    » PDF Fulltext    » doi: 10.19082/1686
Nike Hypervenom Phantom III LowBoots

The  most recent editorial (June 2021)

Ethics of Publishing Case Reports: Do We Need Ethics Approval and Patient Consent?

An editorial by Dr. Mehrdad Jalalian

Read more.

The worldwide spread of COVID-19 as an emerging, rapidly evolving situation, and the dramatic need of urgent medicine or vaccine, has rapidly brought new hypotheses for pathophysiology and potential medicinal agents to the fore. It is crucial that the research community provide a way to publish this research in a timely manner.


To contribute to this important public health discussion, the Electronic Physician Journal is excited to announce a fast-track procedure to help researchers publish their articles on COVID-19 related subjects that fall under the broad definition of public health, internal medicine, and pharmacology. We are especially welcome to all hypotheses about the pathological basis of the COVID-19 infection and the possible characteristics of potential medicine and vaccine. Submit your manuscript here


Our previous editorial (June 2020)

Lessons from COVID-19 pandemic and the Morocco’s success story.

An editorial by Dr. Benksim Abdelhafid (Morocco)

Read more.


The 6th World Conference on Research Integrity (WCRI) is to be held on June 2-5, 2019 in Hong Kong.

The WCRI is the largest and most significant international conference on research integrity. Since the first conference in Lisbon in 2007, it has given researchers, teachers, funding agencies, government officials, journal editors, senior administrators, and research students opportunities to share experiences and to discuss and promote integrity in research. Read more:


TDR Clinical Research and Development Fellowships

Call for applications

Deadline for submission: 7 March 2019, 16:00 (GMT)

TDR provides fellowships for early- to mid-career researchers and clinical trial staff (e.g. clinicians, pharmacists, medical statisticians, data managers, other health researchers) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to learn how to conduct clinical trials. Read more:

Meta-Analysis Workshops in New York, USA, and London, UK, in April and May 2019

Don't miss this exceptional opportunity to learn how to perform and report a Meta-analysis correctly. Two Meta-analysis workshops are organized in April and May 2019 by Dr. Michael Borenstein in New York, USA (April 08-10, 2019) and London, UK (May 27-29).

About the Instructor

Dr. Michael Borenstein, one of the authors of Introduction to Meta-Analysis, is widely recognized for his ability to make statistical concepts accessible to researchers as well as to statisticians. He has lectured widely on meta-analysis, including at the NIH, CDC, and FDA. Read more: