Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use among athletes and examine the extent of their knowledge on the effects of AAS in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at gyms in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during 2015. In total 600 athletes from three gyms participated in the study. The study included Saudi and non-Saudi athletes chosen by the simple random sampling method. A self-reported questionnaire was used for data collection. The questionnaire was designed to study the prevalence and assess the knowledge of athletes regarding AAS use. Frequency and percentage distributions were used to describe the data. Comparison between the subgroups was made with a chi-square test.

Results: The percentage of AAS users was 30.5%. The age of AAS users ranged from 15 to 49 years with the majority (52.5%) belonging to age group of 25-29 years. Approximately 20% of the users admitted using AAS due to body dysmorphia as their best motivational factor; in addition, they also believed that there are no side effects of the use. Among the nonusers, 40% had appropriate knowledge, while all the AAS-users had inadequate knowledge about the adverse effects of AAS. Moreover, 77% of the users would recommend AAS to their friends but none from the nonusers. A significant difference in age distribution (df = 5, p<0.001) and knowledge (df = 4, p< 0.001) between users and nonusers was observed.

Conclusion: Most athletes were ignorant of the harmful side effects of the drug but still continued to use and promote it to other athletes. These athletes should intensify their knowledge and awareness regarding the use of AAS and its effects on the body.


Keywords: Anabolic androgenic steroid, Body dysmorphia, Athletes, Motivation
» HTML Fulltext    » PDF Fulltext    » doi: 10.19082/3343
Adidas Puma ShoesAir Jordan 1 Retro High OG Wmns "Panda" CD0461-007 Women/Men Super Deals, Price: $98.03 - Air Jordan Shoes

The  most recent editorial (June 2021)

Ethics of Publishing Case Reports: Do We Need Ethics Approval and Patient Consent?

An editorial by Dr. Mehrdad Jalalian

Read more.

The worldwide spread of COVID-19 as an emerging, rapidly evolving situation, and the dramatic need of urgent medicine or vaccine, has rapidly brought new hypotheses for pathophysiology and potential medicinal agents to the fore. It is crucial that the research community provide a way to publish this research in a timely manner.


To contribute to this important public health discussion, the Electronic Physician Journal is excited to announce a fast-track procedure to help researchers publish their articles on COVID-19 related subjects that fall under the broad definition of public health, internal medicine, and pharmacology. We are especially welcome to all hypotheses about the pathological basis of the COVID-19 infection and the possible characteristics of potential medicine and vaccine. Submit your manuscript here


Our previous editorial (June 2020)

Lessons from COVID-19 pandemic and the Morocco’s success story.

An editorial by Dr. Benksim Abdelhafid (Morocco)

Read more.


The 6th World Conference on Research Integrity (WCRI) is to be held on June 2-5, 2019 in Hong Kong.

The WCRI is the largest and most significant international conference on research integrity. Since the first conference in Lisbon in 2007, it has given researchers, teachers, funding agencies, government officials, journal editors, senior administrators, and research students opportunities to share experiences and to discuss and promote integrity in research. Read more:


TDR Clinical Research and Development Fellowships

Call for applications

Deadline for submission: 7 March 2019, 16:00 (GMT)

TDR provides fellowships for early- to mid-career researchers and clinical trial staff (e.g. clinicians, pharmacists, medical statisticians, data managers, other health researchers) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to learn how to conduct clinical trials. Read more:

Meta-Analysis Workshops in New York, USA, and London, UK, in April and May 2019

Don't miss this exceptional opportunity to learn how to perform and report a Meta-analysis correctly. Two Meta-analysis workshops are organized in April and May 2019 by Dr. Michael Borenstein in New York, USA (April 08-10, 2019) and London, UK (May 27-29).

About the Instructor

Dr. Michael Borenstein, one of the authors of Introduction to Meta-Analysis, is widely recognized for his ability to make statistical concepts accessible to researchers as well as to statisticians. He has lectured widely on meta-analysis, including at the NIH, CDC, and FDA. Read more: