Introduction: Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of increased morbidity and mortality observed in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Endothelial dysfunction (ED) is thought to be a key initial event in the development of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential role of hemostatic factors in atherosclerosis, thrombosis and cardiovascular complications in patients suffering from chronic renal disease.

Methods: The study was conducted on 50 renal patients divided into two groups of equal size. Group 1 consisted of 25 patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on regular hemodialysis. Group 2 consisted of 25 chronic renal disease patients on conservative treatment. Twenty age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were included in the study to serve as a control group. Thrombomodulin (TM), von Willebrand factor (vWF), tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) and hsCRP were assessed. High-resolution B-mode ultrasonography of both the common and internal carotid arteries to measure carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) was performed on all subjects.

Results: There were highly significant increases in hsCRP, TM, vWF, tPA and PAI-1 in both patient groups compared to the control group (P<0.01 for all except for TM between group 2 and 3 P<0.05) with significant increase in group 1 compared to group 2 (P<0.01). In addition, there was a highly significant increase in CIMT in both patient groups compared to the control group (P<0.01) with a significant increase in group 1 compared to group 2 (P<0.05). The study revealed significant positive correlation of hemostatic factors (TM, vWf, PAI-1 & t-PA) with creatinine, urea, hsCRP & CIMT.

Conclusion: CKD patients have increased risk of atherosclerosis as measured by CIMT, which is used as a surrogate marker of early atherosclerosis and has been shown to be a strong predictor of future myocardial infarction and stroke. They have high levels of TM, vWF, tPA, PAI-1 that correlate with kidney function, hsCRP and CIMT. Therefore, these abnormalities in hemostasis may account for the increased risk of atherothrombosis in these patients. The elevated hsCRP levels and their correlation to hemostatic factors and CIMT might provide an important clue to link a systemic marker of inflammation to atherosclerosis. Further research is required to better understand the procoagulant state in patients with CKD.


Keywords: Chronic kidney disease (CKD), hemodialysis (HD), atherosclerosis, carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), TM, vWf, t-PA, PAI-1
» HTML Fulltext    » PDF Fulltext    » doi: 10.14661/1270

The  most recent editorial (June 2021)

Ethics of Publishing Case Reports: Do We Need Ethics Approval and Patient Consent?

An editorial by Dr. Mehrdad Jalalian

Read more.

The worldwide spread of COVID-19 as an emerging, rapidly evolving situation, and the dramatic need of urgent medicine or vaccine, has rapidly brought new hypotheses for pathophysiology and potential medicinal agents to the fore. It is crucial that the research community provide a way to publish this research in a timely manner.


To contribute to this important public health discussion, the Electronic Physician Journal is excited to announce a fast-track procedure to help researchers publish their articles on COVID-19 related subjects that fall under the broad definition of public health, internal medicine, and pharmacology. We are especially welcome to all hypotheses about the pathological basis of the COVID-19 infection and the possible characteristics of potential medicine and vaccine. Submit your manuscript here


Our previous editorial (June 2020)

Lessons from COVID-19 pandemic and the Morocco’s success story.

An editorial by Dr. Benksim Abdelhafid (Morocco)

Read more.


The 6th World Conference on Research Integrity (WCRI) is to be held on June 2-5, 2019 in Hong Kong.

The WCRI is the largest and most significant international conference on research integrity. Since the first conference in Lisbon in 2007, it has given researchers, teachers, funding agencies, government officials, journal editors, senior administrators, and research students opportunities to share experiences and to discuss and promote integrity in research. Read more:


TDR Clinical Research and Development Fellowships

Call for applications

Deadline for submission: 7 March 2019, 16:00 (GMT)

TDR provides fellowships for early- to mid-career researchers and clinical trial staff (e.g. clinicians, pharmacists, medical statisticians, data managers, other health researchers) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to learn how to conduct clinical trials. Read more:

Meta-Analysis Workshops in New York, USA, and London, UK, in April and May 2019

Don't miss this exceptional opportunity to learn how to perform and report a Meta-analysis correctly. Two Meta-analysis workshops are organized in April and May 2019 by Dr. Michael Borenstein in New York, USA (April 08-10, 2019) and London, UK (May 27-29).

About the Instructor

Dr. Michael Borenstein, one of the authors of Introduction to Meta-Analysis, is widely recognized for his ability to make statistical concepts accessible to researchers as well as to statisticians. He has lectured widely on meta-analysis, including at the NIH, CDC, and FDA. Read more: