Background: Scorpions are usually defined as predatory arachnids having venomous and painful stings. Scorpionism is considered as one of the health and medical problems in undeveloped tropical and subtropical countries in the world that endangers thousands of people annually. 
Objective: This study was done for identification of scorpion fauna and scorpionism location in a high-risk area in southwest of Iran.
Methods: This study was carried out in Andimeshk district located in Khuzestan province which has the highest frequency of scorpionism in Iran. In total, 4 urban and 15 rural areas with various climates and topography were selected for monthly scorpion collection in 2016. Additionally, clinical data was obtained from questionnaires over a 5-year period (2012 to 2016) which were completed by physicians and health staff in hospitals and health centers. The data were analyzed by IBM-SPSS Version 20.  
Results: A total of 850 scorpion samples with the most frequency in rural areas were collected. Eight species belonging to three families; Buthidae, Scorpionidae and Hemiscorpiidae were identified. A. crassicauda was the dominant species followed by H. lepturus. The largest collection due to scorpion's activity was recorded in summer. The five-year prevalence of scorpion sting were 9.1/1000 inhabitants. The highest frequency of scorpionism was observed in the male age group of 25-34 years. Most cases had been treated with polyvalent scorpion antivenom within 6-12 hours of the sting.
Conclusion: Based on the findings, six species of medically important scorpions that were previously reported from Iran were also collected and caught in this study area. The findings of this study can be useful for policymakers at the Andimeshk Healthcare Center to prevent scorpionism and provide appropriate treatment for scorpionism cases.


Keywords: Scorpion, Scorpionism, Andimeshk, Iran


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