Background: Otitis media (OM) is a major health problem that usually results from adenoid hypertrophy. Diagnosis is based on symptoms like mouth breathing and imaging studies like lateral neck radiography (LNR). Adenoid-nasopharyngeal ratio (A/N ratio) is one of the most important and most widely used criteria in LNR study that could estimate the real size of adenoid gland measurements. However, there are huge controversies regarding LNR rules in the management of patients with OM. 
Objective: This study aimed to determine Adenoid Nasopharyngeal Ratio (A/N ratio) in children with otitis media with effusion (OME) and its relation with different factors.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional study on OME suspected children who needed adenoidectomy. The study was conducted from the fall to winter of 2016 on patients referred to ENT clinics of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. Before surgery, all children underwent standard LNRs and indirect laryngoscopy to assess adenoidal size, and nasopharyngeal length, and A/N ratio. After adenoidectomy, pathologic analysis was performed for assessment of pathologic size. SPSS 21 was used for data analyzing using Pearson’s correlation, independent t test and Mann-Whitney U test (p<0.05 was considered significant).
Results: A total of 27 children were enrolled. Most of the patients were male (70.4%, mean age=7.81±2.52 year). All patients in the study were symptomatic and the most frequent symptom was mouth breathing (100%). The mean A/N ratio, pathologic adenoid size, and laryngoscopic adenoid size were 0.825±0.099, 18.22±5.97, and 5.33±19.15 mm. There was a significant correlation between the A/N ratio laryngoscopic adenoid size (r=+0.46, p=0.01) and pathologic adenoid size (r=+0.44, p=0.02).
Conclusions: The results of this study showed that A/N ratio can be used to estimate the actual size of the adenoid gland and the necessity of adenoidectomy. Considering the reasonable costs and availability of this diagnostic method, researchers recommend using this procedure in assessment of patients with OME.


Keywords: Otitis media, Adenoid hypertrophy, Effusion, Rhinoscopy


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