Background: Today, it is considered that infants can feel pain, and it can have several adverse effects on their development. Although different interventions, such as skin-to-skin contact (kangaroo mother care method), glucose solutions, breastfeeding, and local anesthetic agents, have been evaluated to reduce infants’ pain, there is no clinical trial available to identify the best method. 
Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of four methods of relieving infants’ pain, i.e., breastfeeding, oral 25% dextrose, kangaroo mother care method (KMCM), and EMLA cream based on a pain score level following heal-prick sampling in term newborns.
Methods: In this double-blind, controlled, randomized clinical trial, full term, and healthy infants in Shahid Motahhari Hospital, Marvdasht, Shiraz Province, Iran were studied. Infants were randomly allocated to four groups of interventions, i.e., A: breast milk feeding (n=42), B: oral 25% dextrose (n=40), C: KMCM (n=38), and D: KMCM ointment (n=40). All interventions were applied 15 minutes before heel-prick sampling. To evaluate the pain level in infants, the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS) questionnaire was used. The data were analyzed with SPSS version 16 by ANOVA and the chi-squared tests.
Results: One hundred and sixty-one infants (93 males, 68 females) with an age range of 3 to 5 days were studied. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of gender (p=0.113), weight (p=0.059), and baseline pain score level (p=0.904). The breastfeeding method showed the lowest pain score in comparison to the other interventions (A=5.52±2.22, B=6.45±1.88, C=6.84±1.96, D=7.37±1.95; p=0.001) after the heel-prick sampling. 
Conclusion: It seems that, among the four methods of interventions in this study, the most effective method of lowering perceived pain in infants undergoing painful procedures was proven to be breastfeeding. 
Trial Registration: This study is registered in the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials with the registration number of IRCT20151201253256N1. 
Funding: This research was supported financially by the Research Council of the International Campus of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences.


Keywords: Kangaroo-Mother Care Methods, Breastfeeding, Dextrose, EMLA, Infant, Pain, Pain Management, Neonatal Infant Pain Scale


» HTML Fulltext    » PDF Fulltext    » doi: 10.19082/6741
adidasNike Air Zoom Pegasus

The  most recent editorial (June 2021)

Ethics of Publishing Case Reports: Do We Need Ethics Approval and Patient Consent?

An editorial by Dr. Mehrdad Jalalian

Read more.

The worldwide spread of COVID-19 as an emerging, rapidly evolving situation, and the dramatic need of urgent medicine or vaccine, has rapidly brought new hypotheses for pathophysiology and potential medicinal agents to the fore. It is crucial that the research community provide a way to publish this research in a timely manner.


To contribute to this important public health discussion, the Electronic Physician Journal is excited to announce a fast-track procedure to help researchers publish their articles on COVID-19 related subjects that fall under the broad definition of public health, internal medicine, and pharmacology. We are especially welcome to all hypotheses about the pathological basis of the COVID-19 infection and the possible characteristics of potential medicine and vaccine. Submit your manuscript here


Our previous editorial (June 2020)

Lessons from COVID-19 pandemic and the Morocco’s success story.

An editorial by Dr. Benksim Abdelhafid (Morocco)

Read more.


The 6th World Conference on Research Integrity (WCRI) is to be held on June 2-5, 2019 in Hong Kong.

The WCRI is the largest and most significant international conference on research integrity. Since the first conference in Lisbon in 2007, it has given researchers, teachers, funding agencies, government officials, journal editors, senior administrators, and research students opportunities to share experiences and to discuss and promote integrity in research. Read more:


TDR Clinical Research and Development Fellowships

Call for applications

Deadline for submission: 7 March 2019, 16:00 (GMT)

TDR provides fellowships for early- to mid-career researchers and clinical trial staff (e.g. clinicians, pharmacists, medical statisticians, data managers, other health researchers) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to learn how to conduct clinical trials. Read more:

Meta-Analysis Workshops in New York, USA, and London, UK, in April and May 2019

Don't miss this exceptional opportunity to learn how to perform and report a Meta-analysis correctly. Two Meta-analysis workshops are organized in April and May 2019 by Dr. Michael Borenstein in New York, USA (April 08-10, 2019) and London, UK (May 27-29).

About the Instructor

Dr. Michael Borenstein, one of the authors of Introduction to Meta-Analysis, is widely recognized for his ability to make statistical concepts accessible to researchers as well as to statisticians. He has lectured widely on meta-analysis, including at the NIH, CDC, and FDA. Read more: