Introduction: Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has produced a great revolution in the treatment of the urolithiasis. Bacteriemia, bacteriuria, and septic shock are the documented complaints for which early diagnosis and treatment can be vital. C-reactive protein (CRP), an acute phase reactant, serves as a marker of the infection before other measures. In this study, we measured the CRP value in the early detection of bacteriemia and bacteriuria after ESWL.

Methods: In 2005, we sought patients who had urolithiasis and were candidates for ESWL, and we recruited such patients for this study. The inclusion criteria were sterile urine and a negative CRP test. The patients who participated in the study were requested to undergo laboratory tests on the third and seventh days after ESWL. After the resulting data were entered into the SPSS-11.5 data analysis software, the analyses were done with Chi squared test.

Results: Among the studied subjects, 29 out of 97 (29.9%) had a positive CRP test and 16 (15.2%) had positive urine cultures. There was no significant statistical relationship between the CRP tests and the urine cultures (P value > 0.05). On the third day, the relationship between CRP and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was significant (P value < 0.001). The positive predictive values of CRP were 0.087 and 0.214, and the negative predictive values were 0.87 and 0.963. The sensitivity and specificity of CRP were 18.2% and 74.1% (first stage), respectively, and 60% and 82.5% (second stage), respectively.

Conclusions: We were unable to determine what the diagnostic value of CRP should be in the early detection of infection after ESWL. Additional studies are needed to provide greater insight into this issue.

Key words: CRP, ESWL, Bacteriemia, Bacteriuria  
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July-September 2019 (Volume 11, Issue 3)


Previous Issue

In the second issue of the journal Electronic Physician for 2019, we have several papers including four Randomized Controlled Trials, a model development study, a case report, an editorial, a letter to editor (LTE), and several original research including two studies with qualitative approach. Authors of this issue are from nine countries: Iran, The Netherlands, Sweden, Italy, India, Thailand, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Jordan. Read more...


The 6th World Conference on Research Integrity (WCRI) is to be held on June 2-5, 2019 in Hong Kong.

The WCRI is the largest and most significant international conference on research integrity. Since the first conference in Lisbon in 2007, it has given researchers, teachers, funding agencies, government officials, journal editors, senior administrators, and research students opportunities to share experiences and to discuss and promote integrity in research. Read more:


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Deadline for submission: 7 March 2019, 16:00 (GMT)

TDR provides fellowships for early- to mid-career researchers and clinical trial staff (e.g. clinicians, pharmacists, medical statisticians, data managers, other health researchers) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to learn how to conduct clinical trials. Read more:

Meta-Analysis Workshops in New York, USA, and London, UK, in April and May 2019

Don't miss this exceptional opportunity to learn how to perform and report a Meta-analysis correctly. Two Meta-analysis workshops are organized in April and May 2019 by Dr. Michael Borenstein in New York, USA (April 08-10, 2019) and London, UK (May 27-29).

About the Instructor

Dr. Michael Borenstein, one of the authors of Introduction to Meta-Analysis, is widely recognized for his ability to make statistical concepts accessible to researchers as well as to statisticians. He has lectured widely on meta-analysis, including at the NIH, CDC, and FDA. Read more: