Background: Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, which has several clinical manifestation and origins, is known as one of the most life-threatening events in children. Several etiologies have been suggested for GI bleeding. 
Objective: To determine the most important causes of GI bleeding in children referred to Ghaem Hospital and Dr. Sheikh Hospital, Mashhad, Iran.
Methods: In this cross-sectional study, after obtaining written informed consent of their parents, 113 patients aging from newborn infants to 18-year-old children with GI bleeding admitted to Ghaem Hospital and Dr. Sheikh hospital were enrolled in this study from June 2012 to June 2014. After performing routine diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, a checklist containing all necessary information including demographic data, clinical history of patients, endoscopy and pathology findings, clinical and preclinical information were collected. The data were then analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.
Results: Of a total 113 study children, 61 (54%) were male and 52 (46%) were female. The results of this study showed that the most important causes of bleeding in upper GI among all admitted patients were prolapse gastropathy (18.6%), esophagitis (15.9%) and esophageal varices, gastritis, and coagulopathy (7.1% for each). The main causes of lower GI bleeding were polyp (32.5%), chronic nonspecific colitis (20.7%), and proctitis (18.2%).
Conclusion: Findings of this study indicated that prolapse gastropathy and esophagitis are more prevalent causes of upper GI bleeding. Furthermore, esophageal varices were more common in children older than 13 years. Polyp, chronic nonspecific colitis and proctitis are the most prevalent causes of lower GI bleeding.


Keywords: Gastropathy, Gastrointestinal bleeding, Endoscopy


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